by AK Team
Ataxia is a kind of neurological disorder that is usually caused by the damage to a part of the brain that is known as the cerebellum. This kind of neurological disorder disease affects the co – ordination, balance speech of the person who is affected by this kind of disease.
In this kind of neurological disorder disease, any part of the entire body can be affected, but usually people who are suffering from ataxia, often have difficulties especially while balancing their body and also while walking.
This kind of neurological disorder disease can also be caused if there is any damage caused to the spinal cord or to any of the other nerves. But the most common and the most usual reason or the cause of this kind of neurological disorder is the damage to the cerebellum and this is the reason why people who are infected by this kind of disease often tend to lose their balance and have difficulty in walking as well.
Ataxia basically in very simple terms describes a lack of muscle control or co – ordination of the voluntary muscle movements.
Besides the damage of certain parts of the nervous system, there are various other factors that eventually lead to the cause of this type of neurological disorder is individuals. Such factors might include alcohol abuse, certain medications, stroke, cerebral palsy, etc.
There are various treatments that are available for this kind of neurological disorder. The kind of treatment a person recieves who is having this kind of neurological disorder entirely depends on the cause of the disease, that is whether the disease is caused due to damage of the cerebellum or the spinal cord or any other factor.
Some adaptive devices such as the walkers, canes might help a person to maintain his or her independence. Some certain therapies like physical therapy. Occupational therapy. Speech therapy and regular aerobic exercise also might help the affected person to get cure from this kind of neurological disorder.
TYPES OF ATAXIA
The type of ataxia indicates the exact location where this type of neurological disorder is caused and also eventually through this an individual person can also identify for this kind of neurological disorder. There are various types of this kind of neurological disorder that are present. Some of the types of this kind of neurological disorder are listed and described below :
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT)
- This is the most common form of this kind of neurological disorder.
- There are various names for this type of neurological disorder such as AT, cerebello – oculocutaneous telangiectasia, immunodeficiency with ataxia telangiectasia and also Louis – Bar syndrome.
- This form of neurological disorder is the most complex genetic neurodegenerative disorder
- This form of neurological disorder might become more apparent during infancy or during early childhood
- Progressively impaired co – ordination of voluntary or skeletal muscle movements ( that is the common ataxia), the development of reddish lesions of the skin and mucous membranes due to the permanent widening of groups of the blood vessel ( that is known as the telangiectasia in simpler terms) and the impaired functioning of the immune system ( that is the cellular and the humoral immunodeficiency ) are the characteristic features of this form of neurological disorder
- All these above listed conditions result in an increased susceptibility to the upper and the lower respiratory infections and are collectively known as the sinopulmonary infections.
- This form of this type of neurological disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait that is it can be transmitted genetically as well.
Episodic ataxia (EA)
- This type of neurological disorder is the most rarest form of this disease
- This form of this kind of neurological disorder, that is episodic ataxia or EA is basically a neurological condition that impairs the movements in individuals.
- Individuals who are affected with this form of this kind of neurological disorder experience episodes of poor co – ordination and balance which usually lasts for about from several seconds to several hours.
- This form itself has various forms and types of neurological disorders out of which type 1 and type 2 are the most common type of this form of neurological disorder
Friedreich’s ataxia (FA)
- This form of this type of neurological disorder is a rare type form of this kind of disease.
- This form of this kind of neurological disorder, that is Friedreich’s ataxia or FA is basically a type of genetic disease that eventually leads to difficulty in walking or a loss of sensation in the limbs that in the arms and the legs and also an impaired speech
- Another name for this kind of neurological disorder is spino – cerebellar degeneration
- Though there are various treatments that are available for this kind of neurological disorder to cope up with the symptoms still there is currently no cure for it.
Multiple system atrophy (MSA)
- This form of this neurological disorder is a rare form of the disease.
- This form is a bit different from rest all other forms of this kind of neurological disease.
- MSA or simple multiple system atrophy is a kind of degenerative neurological disorder that affects the involuntary or simply the automatic functions of the body such as blood pressure, breathing, bladder function and also some motor control.
- This form of this kind of neurological disorder has some symptoms that very similar to Parkinson’s disease
- This form of this kind of neurological disorder is a collective term that refers to a group of hereditary ataxia that are usually characterized by degenerative changes
- The degenerative changes that takes place usually occur in the part of the brain that is relate to movement and control
- Usually this kind of neurological disorder occurs in the cerebellum and also in the spinal cord
SYMPTOMS OF ATAXIA
The kind of symptoms that a person who is affected by his kind of neurological disorder experiences entirely depend on the type and the stage of this kind of neurological disorder at which the person is suffering currently. There are various signs and symptoms that an affected person experiences. Some of the signs and symptoms of this kind of neurological disorder are listed below :
- Having trouble while walking
- Decreased co – ordination
- Impaired balance with quit frequent falls
- Having cardiovascular problems
- Loss of fine motor skills
- Having slurred speech
- Having vision problems
- Poor co – ordination
- Unsteady walk
- Tendency to stumble
- Nystagmus (involuntary back – and – forth eye movements )
CAUSES OF ATXIA
There are various reasons and causes that lead to this kind of neurological disorder eventually. Some of the causes that might lead to this kind of neurological disorder eventually are listed below :
- Head trauma
- Cerebral palsy
- Autoimmune diseases
- Paraneoplastic syndromes
- Abnormalities in the brain
- Toxic reaction
- Vitamin E, vitamin B – 12 or thiamine deficiency
- Thyroid issues