• Blog
  • by AK Team
  • July 29, 2021
  • 0


Diabetes is a long – lasting condition in which the body is either not able to use the food properly for converting it into energy or there is lack of insulin hormone, that converts the blood sugar into energy.

As the food enters our body, most of it is converted into glucose ( a form of sugar in our body) and then it is released into the blood stream. As the glucose enters the blood stream, the blood glucose level increases and this indicates the pancreas to release a hormone named insulin, whose function is to decrease blood glucose level by converting the blood glucose into energy.

If a person has diabetes, there are two possibilities for this. Either the body of that person is not making enough insulin or the insulin that is produced is not able to reduce the blood sugar level. As a result of this, the blood sugar level keeps on increasing and over the time it may cause serious health problems such as renal diseases, cardiovascular diseases and vision loss.

For now, there is no complete cure for diabetes, but following a healthy lifestyle by eating healthy and by exercising regularly one may reduce the risk of getting it.



There are basically four most common forms  :

Type 1  or diabetes mellitus

  • People having type 1  or diabetes mellitus, have lack of insulin, that is insulin is not produced in their body.
  • Such people require insulin externally, hence they insulin is injected into them via syringe,
  • In type 1, the glucose levels have to be regularly monitored as they keep on changing regularly.
  • Just a small amount of carbohydrate intake, can cause a tremendous increase in the glucose levels
  • In severe cases, the patients have to be given multiple doses of insulin in a single day.
  • There is no cure for type 1  currently, but with the intake of insulin externally, the condition can be made better a bit
  • Type 1  is also called insulin dependent diabetes as it is entirely dependent on the intake of insulin.

Type 2  or diabetes insipidus

  • Type 2  is the most common form  found in individuals
  • It is most commonly diagnosed after the age of 45 and due to this reason it is known as adult – onset diabetes
  • Increase in the number of children with obesity and this has led to more cases of type 2 in younger people.
  • In type 2 , individuals usually produce insulin but here it is not used efficiently.
  • Sometimes, people having this, can control it by making slight changes in their diet and lifestyle, but this does not work always
  • In severe cases, people might need to have a proper treatment and some medications for controlling it inspite of making changes in their lifestyle and diet.
  • If not treated at proper time, this may lead to circulatory, nervous and immune diseases disorders.

Pre – diabetes

  • In simpler words, pre – diabetes can be considered a stage prior to  type 2 or diabetes insipidus. Or we can say it is a precursor of  type 2
  • Pre – diabetes is a condition in which the glucose levels are high, but they are not such high that it can be labeled as type 2.
  • Pre – diabetes is a potentially reversible type of diabetes.
  • One can even get this pre – diabetes by making simple changes in their lifestyle and leading a healthy life by having a proper diet and doing regular exercises

Gestational diabetes

  • Gestational  is a form of diabetes that occurs during the gestation period, that is during pregnancy
  • It can occur at any stage of pregnancy, but usually it occurs in either second or third trimester of one’s pregnancy
  • There are certain hormones that are formed in the placenta that helps in the fetus development and these are the hormones that will block the entry of insulin formed in the mother’s body.
  • Due to this, the amount of insulin that the mother receives is restricted
  • Excess blood glucose starts accumulating in the mother and then this excess blood glucose is given to the fetus and there also the blood glucose levels start increasing
  • The excess blood glucose in the fetus starts storing itself as fat as causes health issues in the fetus.
  • Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy and it usually gets cured when the baby is delivered



Symptoms of type 1 or diabetes mellitus

The signs and symptoms of  type 1 may appear suddenly and can include

  • Blurred vision
  • Urinating frequently
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Increased thirst
  • Weight loss
  • Wetting of bed of bed (for people who usually don’t)
  • Irritability and other mood changes
  • Changes in appetite

Symptoms of  type 2 or diabetes insipidus

Type 1 and type 2 usually have almost the same symptoms, just the difference is that the symptoms in type 2  develop more gradually

  • Having areas of darkened skin
  • Frequent infections ( increased sensitivity)
  • Increased thirst
  • Urinating frequently
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow healing sores
  • Numbness in the hands or feet
  • Increased hunger

Symptoms of pre – diabetes are exactly same as  type 2 as pre – diabetes is a precursor of it

Symptoms of gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes can cause health issues to both the mother and the fetus. The symptoms caused may include :

  • Premature birth
  • Higher birth weight of the baby
  • Low blood sugar levels in the baby at birth
  • A higher risk of the mother developing preeclampsia during pregnancy
  • An increase in the pregnant woman’s blood pressure



Causes of diabetes type 1

  • The exact cause of diabetes type 1 is not known
  •  type 1 is more of an autoimmune disease
  • Autoimmune diseases are the diseases in which the cells of the body attack themselves
  • The body’s immune system attacks the beta cells in the pancreas
  • Beta cells are the cells that produce insulin
  • As beta cells are attacked no insulin will be produced and the blood sugar level will keep on increasing

Causes of type 2 and pre – diabetes

There are a number of things that causes diabetes type 2. They are listed below:

  • Obesity (extra weight)
  • Genes
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Miscommunication between cells
  • Broken beta cells
  • Production of too much glucose from liver

Causes of gestational diabetes

  • When food enters our body, pancreas release a hormone insulin, that decreases the blood glucose levels after the meal
  • During pregnancy, the placenta makes hormones that causes the glucose to accumulate In the mother’s blood
  • If the body does not produces enough amount of insulin then gestational diabetes may occur



The type of treatment a person receives depends on the type of diabetes he has. General measures for the treatment are:

  • Healthy diet
  • Physical activity
  • Monitoring glucose levels
  • Insulin level monitoring
  • Oral medications
  • Bariatric surgery
  • Pancreas transplantation

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