• Blog
  • by AK Team
  • July 29, 2021
  • 0

What is hepatitis?

Hepatitis basically is a condition in which the inflammation of liver takes place. This  inflammation can cause damage to the person’s liver. The inflammation can affect the structure and even the functions of the liver.

It can be both acute and as well as chronic (long – lasting). The acute ones will pass without causing any serious problems to the patient, but the chronic ones might cause very serious conditions like scarring of liver (cirrhosis), loss of liver function and in some cases cancer of liver which requires liver transplant sometimes.

The cure and treatment options  depend and vary on the basis of the type of hepatitis one has. Some forms  can be prevented through immunization and by certain lifestyle changes.



  • The liver is the largest gland in human body
  • It is a regenerative organ
  • The liver is triangular in shape roughly and has two lobes
  • The right lobe is slightly larger than the left one
  • The two lobes are separated by a falciform ligament
  • Falciform ligament is a band of tissue that keeps the liver anchored to the diaphragm

The liver being the largest and the most important organ of human body performs various functions such as:

  • Bile production
  • Supporting blood clots
  • Absorbing and metabolizing bilirubin
  • Fat metabolization
  • Metabolizing carbohydrates
  • Vitamin and mineral storage
  • Helps in protein metabolization
  • Filtration of blood
  • Immunological function
  • Production of albumin
  • Angiotensinogen synthesis



Hepatitis mainly caused by viral infection of the liver. It includes basically five different types, they are – A, B, C, D and E. For each of these types  a different type of virus is responsible.

Hepatitis A

  • It is always a short – term and an acute disease
  • It is causes by when a person gets infected with the HAV virus.
  • The most common way of transmission of this type of virus is by consuming food or water that is contaminated by feces from a person who is infected with it
  • It can also be transmitted sexually through sexual contact with a person infected with it
  • This type  do not lead to long term infection and do not cause any complications
  • This can be prevented through a vaccine

Hepatitis B

  • It is most likely to become long lasting (chronic) over a period of time
  • This is caused by HBV virus
  • It is most commonly transmitted through infectious body fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal discharge of the infected person
  • Like type A hepatitis B can also be sexually transmitted
  • The risk of its transmission increases when someone uses the razor of the infected person or is involved in sexual activities with the infected person
  • It is the most common type
  • This can also be prevented by a vaccine
  • If a pregnant lady gets infected with this the fetus inside her womb can also get infected by the disease       

 Hepatitis C

  • Like type B hepatitis C is also a long lasting (chronic) disease which worsens over time
  • It is caused by HCV virus
  • It is transmitted through direct contact with the infected person like through injection drug use and sexual contact with the infected person
  • It is amongst the most common blood borne viral infections in the world
  • Usually people infected with this do not have any symptoms
  • There is currently no vaccine that can prevent this
  • A pregnant woman can pass this disease to the fetus inside her womb if she is infected with this disease, but it is very rare to happen

Hepatitis D

  • It is also most likely to become chronic and long lasting
  • It is also called as delta hepatitis
  • It is a serious liver disease that is caused by HDV virus
  • This is most commonly transmitted through direct contact with the infected blood
  • It is a rare form  and it usually occurs with conjugation of hepatitis B
  • But the HVD can multiply itself without the presence of hepatitis B virus
  • It is a rare type of hepatitis

Hepatitis E

  • It is usually an acute disease
  • It can be chronic for pregnant women
  • It is a water borne disease
  • It is caused by  HEV virus
  • It is found in areas that have poor sanitization
  • It can also be transmitted by ingesting fecal matter that contaminates the water supply
  • It is also an uncommon type



The short term (acute) hepatitis like type A usually do not have any noticeable symptoms. The long lasting (chronic) hepatitis like type B, C, D do have symptoms which go unnoticeable in the initial stages. Some of the common symptoms  are as follows :

  • Feeling and being sick
  • Loss of appetite
  • Dark urine
  • Stomach ache
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • High temperature
  • Feeling tired all the time
  • A sense of feeling unwell
  • The stool color changes
  • Itchy skin
  • Jaundice (yellowing of eyes and skin)
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Abdominal pain



The cause hepatitis entirely depends on the type o. Some general causes  are listed below :

  • Alcohol and other toxins
  • Autoimmune system response
  • Sexual contact with the infected person
  • Drinking contaminated water
  • Coming in direct contact with the infected person
  • Using things of the infected person for example, razor
  • Eating raw shellfish from polluted water
  • Sharing of needles
  • Mother to child



There are several ways of diagnosing hepatitis, some of them are listed below :

  • History and physical examination
  • Based on the symptoms
  • Liver function tests
  • Other blood tests
  • Ultrasound
  • Liver biopsy



The treatment of hepatitis depends on the type  a person is having

Hepatitis A

  • This type do not require any specific treatment usually as it is an acute type
  • For this usually an effective vaccine is recommended

Hepatitis B

  • The acute type  don not require any treatment
  • The chronic type of  needs to be treated on time
  • For the treatment of chronic type usually pegylated interferon-alpha is taken as weekly injection for six months
  • Vaccination can also be used especially for infected pregnant women

Hepatitis C

  • The most recommended treatment for this type currently is a drug combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin
  • The treatment is a form of chemotherapy
  • In some people this combination causes certain types of infections
  • Therefore a regular laboratory check- up while the treatment is under process is necessary

Hepatitis D

  • Currently there are no antivirals present for this type
  • It can be prevented by taking vaccination for hepatitis B as for the development of hepatitis D, hepatitis B is necessary

Hepatitis E

  • Currently there are no specific treatments available for its treatment as it usually occurs in an acute state
  • People infected with this are advised proper rest and care
  • Pregnant women who are infected with this type require close monitoring

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