• Blog
  • by AK Team
  • August 6, 2021
  • 0


PCOS, that is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a very common disease of the ovaries amongst women, especially young women. It is basically a hormonal disorder and affects how an individual woman’s ovaries work.

Women with PCOS have very irregular menstrual cycle, either their periods will last for a very long time or it will get over in just a short span of time. There are also maximal chances that the woman misses her periods and this is very common amongst women with PCOS. Sometimes they also might produce some excess male hormone, that is androgen might be produced in excess amount.

As this disease affects the normal functioning of the ovaries, the ovaries are not able to release eggs regularly and various small fluid collection, that is also known as follicles might develop in the ovaries which affect its normal functioning.

PCOS is very common now a days, every one woman out of ten has this disease. The exact cause of it is not known yet. If this disease is diagnosed at an early stage there are maximal chances of curing it and with early diagnostics and treatment further complications related to this disease such has diabetes and various cardiovascular disease can be prevented.



  • PCOS, that is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a very common hormonal disorder in women of reproductive age
  • Ovaries are a part of reproductive system of women, in PCOS these ovaries are affected
  • The normal function of ovaries is to produce hormones like estrogen and progesterone. These are the hormones that regulate menstrual cycle in women.
  • The ovaries along with producing estrogen and progesterone, also produce some small amount of male hormone known as androgen
  • Ovaries also release eggs every month, this process is known as ovulation
  • There are various hormones that control this process of ovulation, FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)and LH (luteinising hormone) are one of them
  • The function of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) is to stimulate the ovaries to produce follicles (follicles are sac that contain egg)
  • The function of LH (luteinising hormone) is to stimulate the ovaries to release these follicles that are produced
  • In PCOS various cysts are formed in these ovaries and the male hormone, that is androgen are release in a higher amount
  • Women having PCOS experience irregular or skipped periods
  • As fluid filled sacs are formed in PCOS, these sacs are actually follicles (that are produced with the help of FSH – follicle stimulating hormone) that contain immature eggs.
  • Due to this fluid that is filled up in these sacs or follicles, the immature eggs that are present inside it are not able to mature properly, hence the ovaries cannot release eggs every month, which eventually results in irregular or skipped periods every month
  • As there is a lack of ovulation, as a result the FSH and LH are release in less amount and androgen ( male hormone) are released in a very high amount
  • Sometimes due to this over production of androgen, women tend to grow beard and go bald in severe cases.



There are various symptoms of PCOS that a woman who is suffering from the disease experiences. The symptoms range from mild to very severe. In some cases, there are chances that the woman does not experience any symptoms in the initial stages, or during the entire disease at all. The most common symptom of this disease is either some menstrual issues or problem in conceiving or both. Some of the most common symptoms f this disease are listed below :

  • Very irregular periods
  • Missing of periods every alternate month
  • Not able to conceive ( this can either be due to problem in ovulation or because of irregular ovulation)
  • Hirsutism (excessive growth of hair on several parts of the body such as face, chest and back)
  • Unusual and sudden weight gain
  • Thinning of hair
  • Hair loss
  • Acne
  • Oily skin
  • Can lead to infertility as well
  • Polycystic ovaries
  • Male – pattern baldness
  • Sleep apnea
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Pre – diabetes
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Eating disorders
  • Endometrial cancer (cancer of uterine lining)
  • Abnormal uterine bleeding
  • Miscarriage
  • Premature birth
  • Gestational diabetes
  • Metabolic – syndrome



The exact cause of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is not known yet. But there are several factors that can lead to it. Some of such factors are listed below :


  • PCOS is often thought to be transferred genetically
  • If any person has a family history of this disease, there are maximal changes of the person having it as well

Insulin resistance

  • Insulin resistance basically means that the cells cannot use up the insulin properly, that is produced
  • Maximal women (up to 70 percentage of women) who are suffering with this disease have insulin resistance issue
  • As the insulin that is produced is not utilized properly, the body demands more of insulin
  • The pancreas in result work more to produce more insulin and this has a major affect on ovaries and as a result male hormone (androgen) is produced in more amount
  • Insulin resistance can also lead to diabetes type 2 and obesity is one of the major causes for this

Hormonal imbalance

  • PCOS is itself result of hormonal disorder
  • There are various hormones whose slight change in concentration can lead to several issues in the body which eventually result in polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • The raised level of male hormone – androgen can lead to hirsutism (excessive growth of hair on several parts of the body such as face, chest and back) in females
  • Raised or low levels of LH (luteinising hormone) can affect ovulation
  • Extremely low levels of SHBG (sex hormone – binding globulin) can also lead to several issues in the body
  • Low or high levels of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) can lead to changes in the formation of follicles


  • Inflammation is one the    man cause of PCOS in women
  • Being over – weight or being obese can also lead to it



As such there are no specific diagnostic tests  for the diagnosis of this disease, still are quite a few tests which can provide the surety of having this disease if someone is doubtful about having the disease. Such diagnostic tests are listed below :

  • Physical examination
  • A pelvic examination
  • Several blood tests
  • An ultrasound test
  • Screening test for depression and anxiety
  • Screening test for obstructive sleep apnea


There are various treatments available for treating this disease. Mainly these treatments focus on some lifestyle changes. Some of these treatments are listed below :

  • Lifestyle changes
  • Medications
  • Combination birth control pills
  • Progestin therapy
  • Spironolactone (aldactone)
  • Gonadotropins
  • Maintain weight
  • Limit carbohydrates
  • Be active and try to be fit

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