skin cancer
  • Blog
  • by AK Team
  • August 6, 2021
  • 0


Skin cancer as the name itself suggests is the cancer of the skin in which the abnormal growth of cells takes place which eventually turn into a cancerous tumor (malignant) from a non – cancerous one (benign).

Normally as replication of cells takes place in all parts of the body, similarly same type of replication takes place in the skin as well.

Sometimes due to some oncogenic factors which either can be physical, chemical or biological, the oncogenes that are present in each cell in our body gets activated. Oncogenes are basically the genes that code for causing cancer and they are present in each and every cell of our body but in inactivated form. Due to several factors these oncogenes gets activated and the growth or the replication of the cells become abnormal leading to tumors

Initially these tumors that are formed due to abnormal growth of the cells of the skin are non – cancerous (benign) ones but over a period of time these benign tumors covert themselves into malignant (cancerous) ones as the oncogenes in them get activated due to various factors.

There are several treatments and diagnostic tests that are available for this kind of disease and each of them entirely depends on the type of skin cancer and the stage of it as well.



The stage of skin cancer or any type of cancer basically means that how much the cancer or that specific disease has progressed and in which direction the disease is leading the person to. If the cancer is not treated in the initial stages, the cancer can convert itself into invasive type ( that can spread to other parts of the body as well) from a non – invasive type (that do not spread to other parts of the body). The various stages of skin cancer are listed below :

Stage 1

  • This is just the initial stage of the cancer of skin
  • In this stage, the tumor just begins to develop and usually in this stage the tumor that is formed is of non – cancerous type (benign) one
  • In stage 1 the tumor is present in the upper and outer layer of the skin, that is in the epidermis and it does not spread to other parts of the body (non – invasive ) type and also to other layers of the skin

Stage 2

  • In stage 2, the non – cancerous (benign) tumor that is formed in stage 1 now due to the activation of oncogenes, start becoming cancerous (malignant)
  • The tumor is small in size
  • It is still on non – invasive type and do not spread to other parts of the body or to other lymph nodes
  • The tumor is not that risky and if the diagnosis and treatment is done in this stage there are maximal chances of the disease being cured

Stage 3

  • In stage 3 the tumor size increases and now by this stage the tumor has completely become a cancerous tumor (malignant) from a non –cancerous one
  • The tumor also starts becoming of invasive type, that is it starts spreading to some parts of the body
  • The tumor can spread either in the subcutaneous layer ( that is the deepest layer of the skin), bone (here it can cause minimal damage), or it can even spread to the nearest lymph node.

Stage 4

  • This stage 4 can be considered as the last and the most severe stage of skin cancer.
  • In this stage the tumor can grow up to any size and it can spread to any part of the body including other organs
  • The tumor can spread to one or more than one lymph nodes, bone or the bone marrow and to various other organs



The symptoms of skin cancer depend on what type of caner of skin it is. The various and common symptoms of cancer of skin are listed below :

  • A waxy or pearly bump on the skin
  • A flesh – colored or usually brown color scar – like lesion present on the skin
  • Reccuring bleeding or scabbing sore that heals but reoccurs frequently
  • A red nodule that is usually firm
  • A scally lesion that usually has a crusted surface
  • Brownish large spot which has darker speckles
  • A different mole that changes its color, size and may often bleed as well
  • Lesion that itches or burns and is very painful
  • Dark lesions that is seen on palms, soles, fingertips or toes and various other parts of the body
  • Kaposi sarcoma ( this is a very rare form of skin cancer that usually develops in the blood vessels of the skin)
  • Shiny bump on the skin
  • Pink growth on the skin that has an elevated border



There are various reasons and factors that lead to skin cancer. Some of the factors can be oncogenic factors as well that stimulate and activate the oncogenes. Some of the common cause and risk factors that lead to cancer of skin eventually are listed below :

  • Ultraviolet light (UV rays)
  • A history of sunburn
  • An excessive exposure to sunlight and UV (ultraviolet rays)
  • High – altitude or sunny climates
  • Moles (people having moles are at a higher risk of having skin cancer)
  • A family history of skin cancer
  • Exposure to any kind of radition
  • Exposure to certain toxic substances
  • A person with immunocompromised immune system ( a person with weakened immune system)
  • A personal history of skin cancer
  • Skin lesions that are present in the precancerous phase
  • Chemical exposure
  • Smoking



The diagnosis  depends on the type and stage of the cancer. There are various diagnostic tests available. Following listed are some of the diagnostic tests that one might consider while thinking to undergo a diagnostic test for the cancer of skin :

  • Examination of skin
  • Skin biopsy (removing a suspicious element of the skin lesion for testing)
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • MRI
  • X – ray



There are various treatments that are available for the treatment of cancer of skin. The type of treatment a person receives entirely depends on the type, stage and the history of the patient. Some of the treatments that are available for the treatment of cancer of skin are listed below :

  • Freezing
  • Excisional surgery
  • Mohs surgery
  • Curettage and electrodesiccation or cryotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • Biological therapy

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