by AK Team
Typhoid that is also known as typhoid fever and paratyphoid or paratyphoid fever are both similar diseases and are a type of bacterial infection that are caused by a group of bacteria. The group of bacteria that causes these types of bacterial infection in individuals are known as Salmonella typhi.
This type of bacterial infection (also check other bacterial infections such as ANTHRAX : GET TO KNOW ALL ABOUT THIS DISEASE) causes various types of symptoms in an individual and the symptoms include fever, vomiting and diarrhea. This type of bacterial infection can be fatal as well.
This type of bacterial infection is transmitted on passed on through either by drinking contaminated water or by eating contaminated food in simple terms the faeco – oral pathway. Typhoid fever is more common in places where hygiene is not maintained. This type of bacterial infection can also be transmitted directly from an infected person to a healthy person and also from a carrier containing this bacteria (Salmonella typhi) without any symptoms to a healthy person in whom the symptoms can develop.
Typhoid fever is most common in tropical regions especially in countries like India. In other western continents and countries this type of bacterial infection is not that common.
This type of bacterial infection is curable if it is treated at the correct time and stage. Typhoid fever and even paratyphoid fever can be treated with antibiotics as they it is a type of bacterial infection. If this type of bacterial infection is left untreated or if the course of antibiotics is not completed then this bacterial disease can be fatal as well and may cause various other type of serious diseases such as kidney diseases, heart diseases, etc.
STAGES OF TYPHOID FEVER
The stage of typhoid fever or enteric fever indicates that at what level of this bacterial disease the person is currently. With each progressive stage, the disease and the chances of this disease of becoming fatal increases. There are basically four stages of enteric fever or typhoid fever. There four distinctive stages of this type of bacterial disease are listed below :
- As enteric fever is caused by a bacteria that is known as Salmonella typhi
- This type of bacteria is a gram negative type of bacteria
- This bacteria is usually transmitted by feaco – oral method
- As this bacteria (Salmonella typhi) enters in the infected person’s body through faeco – oral method or by directed contact with an infected person it resides in the infected person’s intestine.
- When this bacteria (Salmonella typhi) enters in the small bowel epithelium after ingestion it is supposed and it appears to be mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)
- All these procedures appear in the initial stage this is in the stage 1 of enteric fever.
- In this next stage, that is stage 2 of this type of bacterial infection the diseases tries to progress more and the symptoms are much likely to appear in this stage
- The bacteria that causes enteric fever (Salmonella typhi) moves intracellularly in the submucosa
- Initially, this bacteria moves in the second part of the Payer’s patch
- This moving of bacteria in the second part of Payer’s patch leads to hypertrophy via recruitment of mononuclear cells and lymphocytes
- After almost 2 to 3 weeks of the proliferation in the small intestine itself this bacterial cells of Salmonella typhi move to other parts of the body as well via the blood stream
- After the small intestine, the cells of the bacteria are released into the bile
- Being released in the bile, these bacterial cells re – infect the ileal lymphoid tissue
- Then these bacterial cells go and infect the liver and spleen
- In this stage 3, the bacteria basically in simple terms are spread to various parts of the body via the blood stream
- Stage 4 is probably the last stage of enteric fever if not diagnosed and treated in the initial stages
- In this stage the bacterial cells that cause enteric fever go and spread in the reticuloendothelial system via the lymphatic system and the blood stream
- The replication that takes places within the reticuloendothilial system is the mark of enteric fever
- This is why this stage, that is stage 4 is probably considered as the last and final stage of enteric fever if not diagnosed and treated well in the initial stages.
SYMPTOMS OF TYPHOID FEVER
The main symptom of enteric fever is the fever itself, diarrhea and vomiting. The symptoms that appear in a person who is infected by this type of bacterial infection entirely depend at which stage of the disease the person is suffering currently. The most common and main symptoms that occur in a person who is infected by this type of bacterial infection are listed below :
- Fever (starts with a low temperature and increases very rapidly – reaches to about 104.9 degree F)
- Stomach pain
- Loss of appetite
- Unintended weight loss
- Muscle ache
- Dry cough
- Extremely swollen stomach
CAUSES OF TYPHOID FEVER
- The main cause of this type of bacterial infection is its causative agent Salmonella typhi that causes this type of disease.
- The other causes that might cause this type of bacterial infection in a healthy individual are its transmission ways
- This type of bacterial infection is either transmitted by feco – oral transmission route or through people who are the carriers of this bacteria and they do not have any symptoms.
DIAGNOSIS OF TYPHOID FEVER
If a person is suspected to have enteric fever then the doctor might suggest some of the diagnostic tests to diagnose this type of bacterial infection. There are various diagnostic tests that are available. Some of the diagnostic tests that one might consider while thinking about the diagnosis of this type of bacterial infection are listed below :
- Reviewing medical history of the suspected patient
- Reviewing travel history of the suspected patient
- Blood tests
- Urine test
- Stool examination
- Typhoid test
TREATMENT OF TYPHOID FEVER
The kind of treatment an infected person receives is entirely based on the symptoms the person is having and at what stage of the disease the person it currently. Some of the treatment that are available for this type of bacterial infection are listed below :
- Antibiotics course
- Drinking various fluids
- Surgery of the intestine